There is no specific lab value, physical examination finding, or imaging study that is diagnostic of PID. The diagnosis of PID is often presumptive based on clinical findings.
Both international and national guidelines encourage doctors to treat for PID when a woman presents with lower abdominal pain and all other causes have been excluded.
So here are some factors about PID that might help you to understand the condition, and ensure it is properly treated.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is characterized by infection and inflammation of the upper genital tract in women: the uterus, fallopian tubes and/or ovaries. While a definitive diagnosis of PID can be made by laparoscopic visualization of inflamed, purulent fallopian tubes, PID is generally a clinical diagnosis and thus represents a diagnostic challenge.
A study looks at the secondary issues faced by those who suffer from PID, which about one in eight women in the U.S. contract before 20
The most common physical exam findings are bilateral adnexal tenderness and purulent cervical discharge. Cervical motion, uterine, and lower abdominal tenderness may also be present. Unilateral adnexal tenderness or fullness may suggest the presence of a tuboovarian abscess, while right upper quadrant tenderness may suggest Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome where the infection extends to cause a perihepatitis with inflammation of the liver capsule and ‘violin string’ scar tissue formation.
I went through several doctors and three weeks of eye-watering pain until I was diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease. Here's why PID is so misunderstood.
Non-sexually acquired PID
Amoxycillin 2g IV Q6hrly + Gentamicin 5mg/kg IV OD + Metronidazole 500mg Q12hrly
Sexually acquired PID
treat partners too
Doxycycline 100mg PO/IV Q12hrly + Metronidazole 500mg Q12hrly + Ceftriaxone 1g OD
OR Gentamicin 5mg/kg IV OD + Clindamycin 600mg IV Q8hrly
if patient pregnant or breastfeeding -> substitute doxycycline for roxithromycin 300mg OD
If sexually transmitted, both partners should be tested for all STIs, otherwise, a recurrence of PID can occur months after the initial infection is cleared, particularly if one does not maintain daily health routines or is under too much stress.
This factsheet is for women who have pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or who would like information about it.
Therapy lasts at least 10 to 14 days. You should receive two different kinds of antibiotics, since more than one organism may be involved. Remember to take all your antibiotics, even if your symptoms are gone, so that antibiotic-resistant strains of microbes will be less likely to develop.
Many women don't know they have PID because they don't have any symptoms. For women who have them, symptoms can range from mild to severe. The most common symptom of PID is pain in your lower abdomen (stomach area).
Pelvic inflammatory disease is a polymicrobial infection of the upper genital tract. It primarily affects young, sexually active women. The diagnosis is made clinically; no single test or study is sensitive or specific enough for a definitive diagnosis.
Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious condition, in women. 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. You can prevent PID if you know how to protect yourself.
If diagnosed and treated early, the patient outcome is good. The outcome may not be as good if individuals wait too long before treatment and/or continue to engage in unsafe sexual practices.
To help prevent PID:
◾Use a latex condom each time you have sexual intercourse.
◾Discuss birth control options with your doctor. Ask which methods may increase or decrease your risk of PID.
◾Seek immediate treatment for symptoms, such as unusual vaginal discharge or bleeding.
◾Limit the number of sexual partners.
◾Have regular screening tests for STDs.
Most cases of PID are caused by a bacterial infection that has spread from the vagina or the cervix to the reproductive organs higher up.
Many different types of bacteria can cause PID. In about one in every four cases it is caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as chlamydia or gonorrhoea. In many other cases it is caused by bacteria that normally live in the vagina.
Untreated PID can lead to serious complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, abscess formation and chronic pelvic pain.
STDs are very common. And sometimes, STDs can have serious complications, like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Learning more about PID is an important step in learning how to protect yourself.
A diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease can be missed or delayed because there may be no symptoms in the earliest, most curable stage. When symptoms do occur, they can be similar to symptoms of certain other diseases, such as appendicitis, food poisoning or food borne illness, ruptured ovarian cyst, diverticulitis, and ovarian torsion.
The best protection against PID and other STD's is to always use a condom , unless you are in a long- term monogamous relationship and both of you have been tested for HIV and other STDs. A few inconvenient moments before sexual intercourse can prevent a lifetime of pain and even an untimely death. So... don't forget the condom!