Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) – formerly known as Pneumocyctis carinii pneumonia – with newly diagnosed AIDS is an uncommon presentation in people over 50 years of age. A high level of suspicion is required for this diagnosis when an elderly patient with pneumonia is not responding to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment.
Since its initial misidentification as a trypanosome some 100 years ago, Pneumocystis has remained recalcitrant to study. Although we have learned much, we still do not have definitive answers to such basic questions as, where is the reservoir of infection, how does Pneumocystis reproduce, what is the mechanism of infection, and are there true species of Pneumocystis?
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunocompromised and, in some cases, can be severely life-threatening. Typically, patients at risk are those with any underlying disease states that alter host immunity such as those with cancer, the HIV, transplant recipients, or those taking immunosuppressive therapies and medications.
Thankfully, with the widespread use of antiretroviral drugs, many people may not be too familiar with this opportunistic infection. It most certainly has not gone away, but in the 1980s Pneumocystis pneumonia was what most commonly killed people with AIDS.
Immunity to Pneumocystis is a dynamic interplay between nearly every arm of the immune system and animal models of infection have increased our understanding of host responses to this elusive fungal pathogen.
The common AIDS-related opportunistic infection Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia has been renamed Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia to more accurately identify the fungus that causes the infection.
Pneumocystis pneumonia is an opportunistic disease caused by invasion of unicellular fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. Initially, it was responsible for majority of morbidity and mortality cases among HIV-infected patients, which later have been reduced due to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy, as well as anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis among these patients. Pneumocystis pneumonia, however, is still a significant cause of mortality among HIV-negative patients...
In the 1980s, HIV and AIDS exploded into worldwide prominence. The once obscure Pneumocystis jiroveci was suddenly thrust into the spotlight when it was determined that about 50% of all AIDS patients were dying of Pneumocystis pneumonia, a lung infection caused by the fungal pathogen P. jiroveci.
The best way to prevent PCP is to use strong ART. People who have less than 200 CD4 cells can prevent PCP by taking the same medications used for PCP treatment.
Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents.
If diagnosed promptly, the survival is 80-90% in HIV/AIDS in the western world. In non-AIDS patients, the survival is only 50%. Prevention of subsequent episodes is critical with prophylaxis, while immunocompromised. Patients with PCP should be isolated in rooms as it is transmissible to other immunocompromised patients.
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious illness caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. PCP is one of the most frequent and severe opportunistic infections in people with weakened immune systems, particularly people with HIV/AIDS. Although people with HIV/AIDS are less likely to get PCP today than in recent years, PCP is still a significant public health problem.
PCP is one of the most common pediatric illnesses associated with AIDS, especially in babies younger than 6 months old. Its prevention is very important in AIDS care since it is a leading cause of death in people with AIDS.
Pneumocystis jiroveci was a relatively rare infection before the AIDS epidemic. Pneumocystis pneumonia can be life-threatening, causing respiratory failure that can lead to death. People with this condition need early and effective treatment. For moderate to severe pneumocystis pneumonia in people with AIDS, the short term use of corticosteroids has decreased the incidence of death.
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised people. It remains a leading AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals. Pneumocystis is primarily a pulmonary pathogen but the incidence of extrapulmonary disease has been estimated at 0.06-2.5% of cases.
Pneumocystis pneumonia is essentially not seen in individuals with an intact immune system. It is particularly seen in patients with AIDS and therefore the demographics match those of the AIDS population.
In order to be susceptible to PCP, the patients CD4 count usually has to fall below 200 cells/mm3.