Infectious disease experts say Pakistan is in the grip of the world’s first outbreak of XDR typhoid, and they suspect the country’s abysmal sewage and water systems are the root cause for its spread.
With concerns about infectious disease in the news, a look back at history's most famous carrier.
A new study by Yale scientists has identified a toxin, possessed by Salmonella typhi, S. Typhi, the bacterium that causes typhoid, as the major cause of typhoid symptoms.
More than 2,000 years ago, a plague gripped the Greek city of Athens. Ultimately, as much as a third of the population succumbed and the devastation, which helped Sparta gain the upper hand in the nearly 30-year-long war between the city-states.
The Coalition against Typhoid was established to combat this neglected disease and advocate for the millions currently suffering from it.
The Ebola outbreak is under control, but the developing world remains rife with life-threatening diseases that we in the West barely notice. I should know — I caught three of them in three months.
Superspreaders can turn a minor outbreak into a pandemic.
The United Nations estimates to date 18,000 are still trapped inside Yarmouk without access to food and water. Residents survive on grass and stray animals. Many have contracted jaundice, typhoid, and hepatitis.
The deadliest outbreak of foodborne illness in U.S. history killed 150 of the estimated 1,500 sickened with typhoid fever. The Atlantic Seaboard oyster industry was responsible and it, too, would pay a high price.
Pure-food worshippers put their health at risk—especially when they drink unpasteurized milk.
The Typhoid vaccination is recommended for international travelers especially if they will be visiting smaller cities or rural areas.
Ignorance, not malice, made Mary Mallon a killer. Although a string of doctors tried for years to convince her that although she was perfectly healthy, her body hosted a thriving population of bacteria, she refused to believe them. She also neglected basic hygiene, even when doctors urged her to wash her hands more carefully and more often. Mallon didn't run around New York infecting people on purpose like some kind of deranged human bioweapon; she just didn't wash her hands often enough and didn't believe the evidence.
The waterborne disease is still infecting millions around the world each year. What can we do about it?
On March 27, 1915, New York City health officials quarantined the 45-year-old woman known as “Typhoid Mary” for the second time after linking her to another typhoid fever outbreak. A century later, the name “Typhoid Mary” remains well known, but the details about her life are not. On the 100th anniversary of the start of her 23-year exile, learn 10 surprising facts about one of history’s most famous infectious disease carriers.
CaT focuses on vaccine policy, raising awareness about the prevalence of typhoid, and the need for vaccines. CaT aims to ensure that sufficient global typhoid immunization and financing policies are in place to enable the widespread use of typhoid vaccines in endemic areas, and that these policies are supported at the regional and national levels.
Blogging about Typhoid fever which has harassed mankind since the beginning of civilization...
Most cases (up to 75%) are acquired while traveling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21.5 million persons each year. You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding Salmonella Typhi or if sewage contaminated with Salmonella Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food.
Various vaccines that protect against typhoid are available: Typherix, Typhim Vi and and an oral preparation (3 capsules) called Vivotif. A single dose of injectable vaccine protects for three years, but will not protect against para-typhoid fever.
Antibiotic therapy is the only effective treatment for typhoid fever.
Commonly prescribed antibiotics
•Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). In the United States, doctors often prescribe this for nonpregnant adults.
•Ceftriaxone (Rocephin). This injectable antibiotic is an alternative for women who are pregnant and for children who may not be candidates for ciprofloxacin.
For those traveling to high-risk areas, vaccines are now available. The vaccine is usually not recommended in the U.S. There are two forms of the vaccine available an oral and an injectable form. The vaccination needs to be completed at least one week prior to travel and, depending on the type of vaccine, only protects from two to five years. The oral vaccine is contraindicated in patients with depressed immune systems.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that can spread throughout the body, affecting many organs. Without prompt treatment, it can cause serious complications and can be fatal.
It is caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi, which is related to the bacteria that cause salmonella food poisoning.
Typhoid fever is highly contagious. An infected person can pass the bacteria out of their body in their stools (faeces) or, less commonly, in their urine.
Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are caused by related but different strains of Salmonella spp. There is considerable overlap in symptoms, although typhoid is the more severe and long-lasting disease, and is the one more likely to result in death if prompt treatment is not given. The name typhoid means 'resembling typhus', and was chosen because of the occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in all three diseases.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease, caused by Salmonella typhi. It is transmitted through the ingestion of food or drink contaminated by the faeces or urine of infected people.
Symptoms usually develop 1–3 weeks after exposure, and may be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhoea, rose-coloured spots on the chest, and enlarged spleen and liver. Healthy carrier state may follow acute illness.
Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to common antimicrobials is widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded from handling food.