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... there are numerous types of diabetes pills that can be effective in treating type 2 diabetes. But, thanks to the changing nature of this condition, over time, diabetes pills may not be enough to keep blood sugars and HbA1c within a safe range. In the past, the next step would be to start on insulin. And while many people do, indeed, go on insulin (and there’s nothing wrong with that), today, there are other options: these are the non-insulin injectable medications.
The other class of non-insulin injectables that is more widely used than the amylin analog is known as GLP-1 receptor agonists. The action of these drugs is based on incretins, which are gut hormones that work to increase…
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This drug was first approved in 2017 by the brand name Ozempic® for the treatment of diabetes. Due to its effects on weight loss, semaglutide was also approved in 2021 for weight management under the name Wegovy®. The sheer popularity of this drug has resulted in supply shortages, prompting some people to seek out compounded versions of the drug instead.
Agency officials said this week that they have received reports of problems after patients used versions of semaglutide, the active ingredient in the brand-name medications, which have been compounded, or mixed in pharmacies. Officials didn’t say what the problems were.
The long-term effects must be carefully studied. But the excitement is justified.
Some scientists hypothesize that GLP-1 decreases appetite by acting on specific areas in the brain. One side effect of GLP-1 agonists is weight loss, which is usually desired in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, GLP-1’s effects on weight haven’t been properly verified in humans without diabetes.
Here's why that's problematic.
GLP-1 in both physiologic and pharmacologic doses promotes satiety, affects mechanistic properties of the GI tract and results in negative energy balance. Additionally, its success in promoting weight loss makes GLP-1 agonist therapy an attractive option in the management of type 2 diabetes. What needs to be balanced against this is the reported association between GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy and pancreatitis, pancreatic hyperplasia and pancreatic neoplasia .
Adverse effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, injection-site reactions, antibody formation and increased heart rate
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 or 31 amino acid long peptide hormone mainly secreted by 3 tissues in the human body: enteroendocrine L cells in the distal intestine, alpha cells in the pancreas, and the central nervous system. Through its interaction with the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), GLP-1 participates in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In addition, glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) can be combined with GLP-1Rs, playing the same role as GLP-1.
Administration of GLP-1 receptor agonists stimulates GLP-1 receptors, thereby increasing insulin secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose to similar extents; this means the magnitude of the incretin effect should remain unchanged
The drugs, also commonly known as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists or GLP-1 analogues, are normally prescribed for patients who have not been able to control their condition with tablet medication.
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This review provides evidence that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapies are associated with weight loss in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes with no difference in weight loss seen between the different types of GLP-1 receptor agonists assessed.
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At present, most evidence derives from cellular and animal studies, and more human data are required to determine whether this approach represents a genuine therapeutic advance.
A clinical trial is underway here at the University of Oxford that will specifically examine tau levels in people who have high levels of amyloid-beta but have not (yet) developed dementia. It is hoped that semaglutide will reduce cortical tau levels, leading to reduced rates of cognitive decline.
Injections meant to treat type 2 diabetes have been found to help people lose weight — now, TikTok has become a place of discussion and potential misinformation.
Amid rising demand for drugs like Wegovy, Ozempic, and Mounjaro that can lead to significant weight loss, some obesity experts are concerned about the drugs’ costs — both to patients’ finances and to their health.
You might be wondering why anyone would take these drugs, since they must be injected. These drugs do lower HbA1c levels, but only by 0.5% to 1.5%. They’re also only used as a second or third agent, not by themselves. One of the main draws of these drugs is that they do lead to weight loss in about 80% of users, and they seem to curb hunger, making it a good choice for people who constantly feel hungry. Weight loss eventually plateaus, however, so keep that in mind.
GLP-1 agonists are used to lower blood sugar levels to treat diabetes type 2 by releasing more insulin into the bloodstream
Ozempic® is a medicine for adults with type 2 diabetes that, along with diet and exercise, may improve blood sugar. While not for weight loss, Ozempic® may help you lose some weight.
Though not for weight loss, RYBELSUS® may help you lose some weight
Wegovy® is for adults with obesity (BMI ≥30) or overweight (excess weight) (BMI ≥27) who also have weight-related medical problems to help them lose weight and keep it off. Wegovy® should be used with a reduced-calorie meal plan and increased physical activity.
Many formulations of GLP-1 agonists, all of which historically were injectable and administered subcutaneously due to poor oral bioavailability, can be prescribed in the United States. Lixisenatide and liraglutide dosing are once-daily, albiglutide, dulaglutide, semaglutide dosing is once weekly, and exenatide can be dosed either as a twice-daily or a once-weekly injection. Recently, the FDA approved an oral formulation of semaglutide.