Staphylococcal Scalded Skin syndrome (SSSS) is an uncommon, superficial blistering skin condition, characterised by widespread erythema and exfoliation, mainly occurring in children under five years of age, although older children and adults can be affected. SSSS is caused by the exfoliative toxins (epidermolytic toxins A and B) of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is blistering condition characterized by extensive desquamation and cleavage of the superficial layers of the epidermis which has been well characterized in neonates and children below the age of 6 years. It is a rare syndrome in adults.
SSSS may present on a clinical spectrum and has been increasing in incidence. Although vastly more common in infants, adults with immunosuppression and renal impairment are at risk, with a much greater mortality. Changes in pathogenesis may be related to mupirocin resistance.
Infants are believed to have increased susceptibility to SSSS due to lack of neutralizing antibodies and decreased renal capacity for toxin excretion.
SSSS is differentiated from Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) based on the level of the epidermal separation and the fact that SSSS does not affect mucous membranes.
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is an exfoliating skin disease which primarily affects children. Differential diagnosis includes toxic epidermal necrolysis, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, epidermolysis bullosa, and Stevens–Johnson syndrome. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome primarily affects children and can cause serious morbidity.
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome, also known as Ritter disease is a disease characterized by denudation of the skin caused by exotoxin producing strains of the Staphylococcus species, typically from a distant site. It usually presents 48 hours after birth and is rare in children older than six years. It may also present in immunocompromised adults or those with severe renal disease.