Transparency is critical in public health and epidemics; laypeople become either effective force-multipliers or stubborn walls ― T.K. Naliaka


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How Cities Shape Epidemics

By all rights, the urban experiment that began in the 19th century should have failed. By the middle of the century, writes the historian Michael Haines, big American cities had become “virtual charnel houses,” their primary demographic characteristic being high mortality. Deaths outnumbered births. Despite the greater availability of food and paid work, children under the age of 5 who lived in cities died at nearly twice the rate as those living in the countryside. In 1830, a 10-year-old living in a small New England town could expect to see his or her 50th birthday—but that same child, living in New York, would be dead before the age of 36.

Even those who survived suffered the price…

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Last Updated : Wednesday, July 29, 2020